The intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) is among the necessary obstacles to stop dangerous substances and pathogens from coming into the physique surroundings and preserve intestinal homeostasis. The dysfunction of IMB is related to intestinal ailments and problems. Nanomaterials have been broadly utilized in drugs and as drug carriers as a result of their giant particular floor space, robust adsorbability, and good biocompatibility. On this evaluate, we comprehensively mentioned the influence of typical nanomaterials on IMB and summarized the remedy of intestinal ailments by utilizing nanomaterials. The consequences of nanomaterials on IMB are primarily influenced by components such because the dosage, dimension, morphology, and floor purposeful teams of nanomaterials. There’s a enormous potential and broad prospect for the appliance of nanomaterials in regulating IMB for reaching optimum therapeutic impact for antibiotics, oral vaccines, drug carriers, and so extra.