Load CDC knowledge by desk and form utilizing Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose Dynamic Partitioning
11 mins read

Load CDC knowledge by desk and form utilizing Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose Dynamic Partitioning

Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose is the simplest strategy to reliably load streaming knowledge into knowledge lakes, knowledge shops, and analytics providers. Clients already use Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose to ingest uncooked knowledge from numerous knowledge sources utilizing direct API name or by integrating Kinesis Knowledge Firehose with Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Streams together with “change knowledge seize” (CDC) use case.

Clients sometimes use single Kinesis Knowledge Stream per enterprise area to ingest CDC knowledge. For instance, associated reality and dimension tables change knowledge is shipped to the identical stream. As soon as the info is loaded to Amazon S3, clients use ETL instruments to separate the info by tables, form, and desired partitions as step one within the knowledge enrichment course of.

This put up demonstrates how clients can use Amazon Kinesis Firehose Dynamic Partitioning to separate the info by desk, form (by message schema/model), and by desired partitions on the fly to do that first step of information enrichment whereas ingesting knowledge.

Answer Overview

On this put up, we offer a working instance of a CDC pipeline the place faux buyer, order, and transaction desk knowledge is pushed from the supply and registered as tables to the AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog. The next structure diagram illustrates this general circulation. We’re utilizing AWS Lambda to generate take a look at CDC knowledge for this put up. Nevertheless, in the actual world you’d use AWS Knowledge Migration Service (DMS) or an identical software to push change knowledge to the Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Stream.

The workflow consists of the next steps:

  1. An Amazon EventBridge occasion triggers an AWS Lambda operate each minute.
  2. The Lambda operate generates take a look at transactions, clients and order CDC knowledge, in addition to sends the info to Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Stream.
  3. Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose reads knowledge from Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Stream.
  4. Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose
    1. Applies Dynamic Partitioning configuration outlined within the Firehose configuration
    2. Invokes AWS Lambda remodel to derive customized Dynamic Partitioning.
  5. Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose saves knowledge to Amazon Easy Storage Service (S3) bucket.
  6. The consumer runs queries on Amazon S3 bucket knowledge utilizing Amazon Athena, which internally makes use of the AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog to produce meta knowledge.

Deploying utilizing AWS CloudFormation

You employ CloudFormation templates to create the entire needed sources for the info pipeline. This removes alternatives for handbook error, will increase effectivity, and ensures constant configurations over time.

Steps to comply with:

  1. Click on right here to Launch Stack:
  2. Acknowledge that the template could create AWS Identification and Entry Administration (IAM) sources.
  3. Select Create stack.

This CloudFormation template takes about 5 minutes to finish and creates the next sources in your AWS account:

  • An S3 bucket to retailer ingested knowledge
  • Lambda operate to publish take a look at knowledge
  • Kinesis Knowledge Stream related to Kinesis Knowledge Firehose
  • A Lambda operate to compute customized dynamic partition for Kinesis Knowledge Firehose remodel
  • AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog tables and Athena named queries so that you can question knowledge processed by this instance

As soon as the AWS CloudFormation stack creation is profitable, you need to be capable of see knowledge robotically arriving to Amazon S3 in about 5 extra minutes.

Knowledge sources enter

The Lambda operate robotically publishes 4 forms of messages to the Kinesis Knowledge Stream at common intervals with random knowledge when invoked within the following format. On this instance, we use three tables:

  • Clients: Has primary buyer particulars.
  • Orders: Mimics orders positioned by clients on the procuring web site or cell app.
  • Transactions: Mimics cost transaction completed for the order. The transaction desk showcases potential message schema evolution that may occur over time from message schema v1 to v2. It additionally reveals how one can cut up messages by schema model when you don’t wish to merge them right into a common schema.

Buyer desk pattern message

   "model": 1,
   "desk": "Buyer",
   "knowledge": {
        "id": 1,
        "identify": "John",
        "nation": "US"

Orders desk pattern message

   "model": 1,
   "desk": "Order",
   "knowledge": {
        "id": 1,
        "customerId": 1,
        "qty": 1,
        "product": {
            "identify": "E book 54",
            "value": 12.6265

Transactions in previous message format (v1)

    "model": 1, 
    "txid": "52", 
    "quantity": 32.6516

Transactions in new message format (v2 – newest)

This message instance demonstrates message evolution over time. txid from previous message format is now renamed to transactionId, and new info like supply is added to the unique previous transaction message within the new message model v2.

   "model": 2,
   "transactionId": "52",
   "quantity": 32.6516,
   "supply": "Net"

Dynamic Partitioning Logic

Amazon Kinesis Knowledge Firehose dynamic partitioning configuration is outlined utilizing jq type syntax. We are going to use the desk discipline for the primary partition and the model discipline for the second stage partition. We will derive the desk partition utilizing dynamic partitioning jq syntax “.model”. As you possibly can see, the model discipline is out there in the entire messages. Due to this fact, we will use it straight in partitioning. Nevertheless, the desk discipline is just not obtainable for previous and new transaction messages. Due to this fact, we derive the desk discipline utilizing customized remodel Lambda operate.

We verify the existence of the desk discipline from the incoming message and populate it with the static worth “Transaction” if desk discipline is just not current. Lambda operate additionally returns PartitionKeys for Kinesis Knowledge Firehose to make use of as dynamic partition. The Lambda operate additionally derives the yr, month, and day from the present time.

for firehose_record_input in firehose_records_input['records']:
    # Get consumer payload
    payload = base64.b64decode(firehose_record_input['data'])
    json_value = json.masses(payload)

    # Create output Firehose document and add modified payload and document ID to it.
    firehose_record_output = {}

    desk = "Transaction"
    if "desk" in json_value:
        desk = json_value["table"]

    now = datetime.datetime.now()
    partition_keys = {"desk": desk, "yr": str(now.yr), "month": str(now.month), "day": str(now.day)}

The Kinesis Knowledge Firehose S3 vacation spot Prefix is about to desk=!{partitionKeyFromLambda:desk}/model=!{partitionKeyFromQuery:model}/yr=!{partitionKeyFromLambda:yr}/month=!{partitionKeyFromLambda:month}/day=!{partitionKeyFromLambda:day}/

  • desk partition secret is coming from the Lambda operate based mostly on customized logic.
  • model partition secret is extracted utilizing jq expression utilizing Kinesis Knowledge Firehose dynamic partition configuration. Right here, the model refers back to the form of the message and never the model of the info. For instance, Updates to Buyer document with identical ID is just not merged into one.
  • yr, month, and day partition keys are coming from the Lambda operate based mostly on present time

You possibly can comply with the respective hyperlinks from the CloudFormation stack Output tab to deep dive into the Kinesis Knowledge Firehose configuration, document transformer Lambda operate supply code, and see output information within the Amazon S3 curated bucket. The complete code can be obtainable within the GitHub repository.

Ingested knowledge output

Kinesis Knowledge Firehose processes all of the messages and outputs consequence within the following S3 hive type partitioned paths:

# AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog desk transactions_v1
# AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog desk transactions
# AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog desk clients
# Glue catalog desk orders

Question output knowledge saved in Amazon S3

Kinesis Knowledge Firehose masses new knowledge each minute to the Amazon S3 bucket, and the related tables are already created by CloudFormation for you within the AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog. You possibly can straight question Amazon S3 bucket knowledge utilizing the next steps:

  1. Go to Amazon Athena service and choose the database with the identical identify because the CloudFormation stack identify with out dashes.
  2. Choose the three dots subsequent to every desk identify to open the desk menu and choose Load Partitions. It will add a brand new partition to the AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog.
  3. Go to the CloudFormation stack Output tab.
  4. Choose the hyperlink talked about subsequent to the important thing AthenaQueries.
  5. It will take you to the Amazon Athena saved question console. Sort the phrase Weblog to look named queries created by this weblog.
  6. Choose the question referred to as “Weblog – Question Buyer Orders”. It will open the question within the Athena question console. Choose Run question to see the outcomes.
  7. Choose the Saved queries menu from the highest bar to return to the Amazon Athena saved question console. Repeat the steps for different Weblog queries to see outcomes from the “new and previous transactions” queries.

Clear up

Full the next steps to delete your sources and cease incurring prices:

  1. Go to the CloudFormation stack Output tab.
  2. Choose the hyperlink talked about subsequent to the important thing PauseDataSource. It will take you to the Amazon EventBridge occasion guidelines console.
  3. Choose the Actions button from the highest proper menu bar and choose Disable.
  4. Verify the selection by clicking the Disable button once more on the immediate. It will disable Amazon EventBridge occasion set off that invokes the info generator Lambda operate. This lets us ensure that no new knowledge is shipped to the Kinesis knowledge stream by Lambda from now onward.
  5. Watch for at the very least two minutes for the entire buffered occasions to achieve to the S3 from the Kinesis Knowledge Firehose.
  6. Return to the CloudFormation stack Output tab.
  7. Choose the hyperlink talked about subsequent to the important thing S3BucketCleanup.

You’re redirected to the Amazon S3 console.

  1. Enter completely delete to delete the entire objects in your S3 bucket.
  2. Select Empty.
  3. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose the stack you created and select Delete.


This put up demonstrates find out how to use the Kinesis Knowledge Firehose Dynamic Partitioning characteristic to load CDC knowledge on the fly in close to real-time. It additionally reveals how we will cut up CDC knowledge by desk and message schema model for backward compatibility and fast question functionality. To be taught extra about dynamic partitioning, you possibly can confer with this weblog and this documentation. Present us with any suggestions you might have in regards to the new characteristic.

Concerning the Writer

Anand Shah is a Large Knowledge Prototyping Answer Architect at AWS. He works with AWS clients and their engineering groups to construct prototypes utilizing AWS Analytics providers and purpose-built databases. Anand helps clients resolve probably the most difficult issues utilizing the artwork of the potential know-how. He enjoys seashores in his leisure time.

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