Amazon Athena is an interactive question service that makes it straightforward to investigate information in Amazon Easy Storage Service (Amazon S3) utilizing customary SQL. Athena is serverless, so there isn’t any infrastructure to handle, and also you pay just for the queries that you simply run.
In November 2020, Athena introduced the Common Availability of the V2 model of its core engine along with efficiency enhancements and new characteristic capabilities. Right now, V2 is the default engine model for each Athena workgroup and it consists of further enhancements made since its first launch. Engine enhancements are launched steadily and are robotically obtainable to you with out the necessity for guide intervention.
On this publish, we talk about the efficiency benchmarks and efficiency enhancements of Athena’s newest engine.
We carried out benchmark testing on our newest engine utilizing TPC-DS benchmark queries at 3 TB scale and noticed that question efficiency improved by 3x and value decreased by 70% because of decreased scanned information dimension when in comparison with our earlier engine.
Efficiency and value comparability on TPC-DS benchmarks
We used the industry-standard TPC-DS 3 TB to symbolize completely different buyer use instances. These benchmark checks have a variety of accuracy inside +/- 10% and are consultant of workloads with 10 occasions the said benchmark dimension. This implies a 3 TB benchmark dataset precisely represents buyer workloads on 30–50 TB datasets.
In our testing, the dataset was saved in Amazon S3 in non-compressed Parquet format with no further optimizations and the AWS Glue Knowledge Catalog was used to retailer metadata for databases and tables. Reality tables had been partitioned on the
date column used for be a part of operations and every truth desk consisted of two,000 partitions. We chosen 71 of the 99 queries from the TPC-DS benchmark that greatest illustrated the variations between engines V1 and V2. We ran the queries with a concurrency of three. This implies as much as 3 queries had been in a operating state at any given time and the subsequent question was submitted as quickly as one of many 3 operating queries accomplished.
The next graph illustrates the full runtime of queries on engines V1 and V2 and exhibits runtime was 3x quicker on engine V2.
We additionally in contrast the quantity of knowledge scanned by queries on this benchmark. As proven within the following graph, we discovered that the info scanned – and the ensuing per-query prices – had been 70% decrease with engine V2.
Queries in our benchmark had been persistently extra performant with engine V2. The next graph exhibits the ten TPC-DS queries with the biggest enchancment in runtime. For this set of queries, runtime improved by 6.9 occasions.
Now, let’s take a look at a few of the enhancements in engine V2 that contributed in the direction of these astounding outcomes.
Efficiency enhancements in engine V2
The Athena engine is constructed upon Presto, an open-source distributed SQL question engine optimized for low latency. We’re constantly enhancing Athena’s engine with enhancements developed by Athena and AWS engineering groups in addition to incorporating contributions from the PrestoDB and Trino group. The result’s an engine with constantly rising efficiency and cost-effectiveness advantages which might be robotically obtainable to you. A number of such enhancements are highlighted within the following sections.
Extra environment friendly joins by way of dynamic filtering and dynamic partition pruning
Dynamic filtering and dynamic partition pruning improves the question runtime and reduces information scanned for queries with joins and a really selective filter clause for the desk on the best facet of be a part of, as proven within the following instance.
Within the following question,
Table_B is a small desk with a really selective filter. (
column_A = “worth”). After the selective filter is utilized to
Table_B, a worth checklist for a joined column
Table_B.date is extracted first, and it’s pushed right down to a joined desk
Table_A as a filter. It’s used to filter out pointless rows and partitions of
Table_A. This ends in studying fewer rows and partitions from the supply for
Table_A and serving to cut back question runtime and information scan dimension, which in flip helps cut back the prices of operating the question in Athena.
Extra clever be a part of ordering and distribution picks
Selecting a greater be a part of order and be a part of algorithm is essential to raised question efficiency. They’ll simply have an effect on how a lot information is learn from a selected desk, how a lot information is transferred to the intermediate phases by means of networks, and the way a lot reminiscence is required to construct up a hash desk to facilitate a be a part of. Be part of order and be a part of algorithm selections are a part of the cost-based optimizer that makes use of statistics to enhance question plans by deciding how tables and subqueries are joined.
For instances the place statistics aren’t obtainable, we launched an identical idea however by means of enumerating and analyzing the metadata of the S3 recordsdata to optimize question plans. The logic for these guidelines takes under consideration each small tables and small subqueries whereas making these selections. For instance, contemplate the next question:
The syntactical be a part of order is A be a part of B be a part of C. With these optimization guidelines, if A is taken into account a small desk after retrieving the approximate dimension by means of quick file enumeration on Amazon S3, the foundations place desk A on the construct facet (the facet that’s constructed right into a hash desk for a be a part of) and makes the be a part of as a broadcast be a part of to hurry up the question and cut back reminiscence consumption. Moreover, the foundations reorder the joins to attenuate the intermediate end result dimension, which helps additional pace up the general question runtime.
Nested area pruning for advanced information varieties
On this enchancment for Parquet and ORC datasets, when a nested area is queried in a posh information kind like struct, array of structs, or map, solely the particular subfield or nested area is learn from the supply as a substitute of studying the whole row. If there’s a filter on the nested area, Athena can now push down the predicate to the Parquet or ORC file to prune the content material at supply stage. This has led to important financial savings in information scanned and a discount in question runtime. With this characteristic, you don’t have to flatten your nested information to enhance question efficiency.
Optimized high N rank() capabilities
Beforehand, all enter information for
rank() window capabilities was despatched to the window operator for processing and the LIMIT and filter clauses had been utilized at a later stage.
With this optimization, the engine can exchange the window operator with a high N rank operator, push down the filters, and solely hold high N (the place N is the LIMIT quantity) entries for every window group to save lots of reminiscence and I/O throughput.
A great instance of a question that benefited from this optimization is question 67 (proven within the following code) of the TPC-DS benchmark. It accommodates a subquery with a memory- and CPU-heavy window operate
rank() that’s utilized to the output of one other subquery, which generates an enormous quantity of intermediate information after scanning the massive truth desk
store_sales. The output of this subquery is additional filtered with LIMIT and comparability operators earlier than returning the ultimate outcomes. Due to the LIMIT and comparability operator, solely data with the bottom 100 whole gross sales are significant in every merchandise class window group; the remainder are discarded. Processing these data (that are discarded later by means of window capabilities) is reminiscence and community intensive.
With this enhancement, solely a small quantity of knowledge is stored in reminiscence and despatched throughout the community as a result of the filters and limits are pushed down. This makes the whole workflow extra environment friendly and permits the engine to course of a bigger quantity of knowledge with the identical sources.
Question 67 was unsuccessful on engine V1 regardless of the appreciable time and effort wanted to scan (roughly 75 GB of knowledge) and course of information that was finally thrown away attributable to useful resource exhaustion. On engine V2, this question completes in roughly 165 seconds and scans solely 17 GB of knowledge.
Within the following question, filter clause
rk <=100 and
restrict 100 are pushed to the
rank() operate as described earlier:
Along with these optimizations, the next contributed in the direction of quicker queries and decreased information scan for the queries in our benchmark:
- Additional pushdown of LIMIT and filter operators to scale back the intermediate outcomes dimension and information scanned from the sources
- Enhancement of aggregation and window capabilities to eat a lot much less reminiscence and supply higher efficiency
- Addition of a distributed kind for the ORDER BY operator to make the most of sources successfully which helps kind extra information reliably
- Enchancment in task-scheduling mechanisms for extra environment friendly processing throughout sources
With the efficiency optimizations within the newest engine V2 of Athena, you possibly can run queries quicker and at decrease value than earlier than. The TPC-DS benchmark queries on engine V2 confirmed a 3x enchancment in question runtime and value discount of 70%.
In our mission to innovate on behalf of shoppers, Athena routinely releases efficiency and reliability enhancements on its newest engine model. To remain updated with the most recent engine launch, guarantee your Athena workgroups have chosen Automated question engine improve in your workgroup settings.
Concerning the Authors
Pathik Shah is a Sr. Massive Knowledge Architect on Amazon Athena. He joined AWS in 2015 and has been focusing within the massive information analytics house since then, serving to clients construct scalable and strong options utilizing AWS analytics providers.
Xuanyu Zhan is a Software program Growth Engineer on Amazon Athena. He joined Athena in 2019 and has been engaged on completely different areas of Athena engine V2, together with engine improve, engine reliability, and engine efficiency.
Sungheun Wi is a Sr. Software program Growth Engineer on Amazon Athena. He joined AWS in 2019 and has been engaged on a number of database engines reminiscent of Athena and Aurora, specializing in analytic question processing enhancements.